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Ammonia Emissions in Agriculture

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Author(s): Edited by Gert-Jan Monteny and Eberhard Hartung

Availability: Available

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About The Book

Ammonia emissions is an important topic in many countries with animal production, since it contributes to environmental and health problems. Strategies and measures to reduce ammonia emission are getting increasing attention in national and international legislation.
This book aims to bring together visions and knowledge from scientists, policy makers and other relevant stakeholders around the subject of NH3 emissions from agricultural operations and its reduction options. It also offers a basis for international harmonization on various NH3 emission related topics (e.g. national emission inventories, measurement techniques and strategies, data on emissions and reductions) and, last but not least, it provides an update of science concerning NH3 and related environmental issues.

Additional Information

Author N/A
Dimensions Unknown
Extent 404pp
ISBN 978-90-8686-029-6
Book Type N/A

Contents

The focus of this publication is on NH3 emissions from various agricultural sources (grazing, animal housing, manure storage, land application of manures), and the options for their reduction in a farm system approach. Also, multiple gaseous emissions, their reduction options and pollution swapping issues are addressed. Environmental impact and health related effects of NH3 are briefly addressed. In conclusion, this book gives an overview of the current knowledge about ammonia emissions and how we can implement this knowledge in current agricultural systems.
Preface

Invited papers
  • Ammonia emission: history and future of research, the effects of research and the relation between policy development and research
  • Towards sustainable ammonia emission levels
  • Towards a strong, forward-thinking agricultural sector in harmony with its surroundings
  • Ammonia and the unece convention on long-range transboundary air pollution
  • The regulation of ammonia emissions in the United States
  • Ammonia assessment from agriculture: status and national needs
  • Atmospheric ammonia: detecting emission changes and environmental impacts ? summary report of the unece Edinburgh workshop
  • Reduced nitrogen in ecology and the environment
  • Comprehensive reporting of agricultural emissions
Feeding and management: pigs
  • Nutritional options to reduce ammonia emission from excreta of pigs
  • Effect of different feeding strategies on the ammonia emission from a fattening pig house
  • Effect of diet on air emissions from pigs
  • Effect of piglet diet on gas emissions
  • Dietary composition influences odour and ammonia emissions from pig manure
Feeding and management: poultry
  • Effect of diet on air emissions from laying hens
  • Effect of diet on air emissions from broiler chickens
  • Combined effect of dietary acidogens and cation exchangers on laying hen manure ammonia emissions and egg production costs
Feeding and management: cattle
  • Prediction of fecal and urinary nitrogen excretion by dairy cattle
  • Nutritional options to manipulate ammonia emission from excreta of dairy cattle
  • Milk urea concentration as an indicator for ammonia emission reduction from dairy barns by feeding measures
  • Examples of dairy cows diets to high yielding dairy cows, fed for decreased ammonia emission
Additives
  • Application of urease inhibitors in dairy facilities to reduce ammonia volatilisation
  • Research of feed and manure additives utilisation for ammonia and greenhouse gases emissions abatement in livestock breeding
  • Reduction of ammonia emissions from pig housing, slurry storage and applied slurry through acidification of slurry
  • Reduction of ammonia emission and improved production efficiency in pig houses by acidification of slurry
Cattle housing
  • Ammonia emissions from a low-profile cross-ventilated dairy barn
  • Ammonia emission from cow houses within the Dutch ?Cows & Opportunities? project
  • Measurements of ammonia emission from naturally ventilated dairy cattle buildings
  • Monitoring ammonia emissions from cattle houses using Ferm tubes
  • Inventory of reduction options for ammonia and methane emissions in Dutch cattle farming
Pig housing
  • Ammonia emission in organic pregnant sows with and without access to paddock
  • Heath risks of ammonia exposure for farm animals
  • Distribution of ammonia in swine houses at emission reduction
  • Adjustment of the livestock ventilation system as a potential ammonia abatement technique
  • Determination of ammonia emissions in a pig house from ventilation flow estimated by two different methods
  • Ammonia and odour from different surfaces in a house for fattening pigs
  • Pit and wall emission streams for H2S, NH3, CO2, PM and odour from deep-pit pig finishing facilities
  • Effects on odour and ammonia emissions of different width openings in slatted floors for fattening pigs
  • Reduction of the number of slots for concrete slatted floor in fattening buildings: consequences for pigs and environment
  • Reduction of stocking density in pig units: effects on odour, ammonia and dust
  • Air exchange through slatted floors in houses for fattening pigs
  • The reduction in ammonia emission by cooling the surface of liquid manure in slurry channels
  • Animal welfare, ammonia emission and economical values
  • NH3 emissions in French straw-based pig-on-litter breeding systems
  • NH3 and GHG emissions from a straw flow system for fattening pigs
  • Monitoring of ammonia emissions from two contrasting flooring systems for growing and finishing pigs: fully slatted vs. straw based housing
Poultry housing
  • Management options for reducing ammonia emissions from poultry litter
  • Experimental results of ammonia emissions from a fattening rabbit farm in Spain
  • Experimental results of ammonia emissions from broiler production in Spain
  • Spatial variability of ammonia production in poultry house: biological, chemical, and physical effects at microscale
  • Potential means to reduce ammonia emission from laying hen facilities
  • Ammonia emissions from laying hen and broiler houses in the U.S.A
  • Extraction of ammonia by ventilation in an aviary system for laying hens
  • Influence of manure storage on ammonia release in a floor housing system for laying hens
  • Costs for housing systems with low ammonia emission in poultry
  • Improving air quality in low density floor systems for laying hens
Manure application
  • Effect of application method on ammonia volatilisation from manure applied to grassland in the Netherlands and Belgium
  • An algorithm for estimation of the influence of crop and crop heights on ammonia emission from band spread livestock slurry
  • Comparison of ammonia emissions when using different techniques after application of slurry in Spain: summary of results 2004-06
  • The effect of slurry application rate on ammonia losses from bandspread and shallow injected applications
  • The effectiveness of different soil incorporation techniques as a means of ammonia abatement following the application of solid manure
  • Evaluation of open and closed slot shallow injection of slurry into ley under Swedish conditions
  • Quantification of ammonia flux from land application of swine effluent
  • Modelling ammonia volatilisation following urea fertilisation in a winter wheat-maize rotation in China
  • Evaluation of ammonia emissions from chemical fertilisers land spreading
  • Ammonia emissions from sewage sludge management: an underestimated problem?
Handling and storage
  • Turnover and losses of NH3 during manure composting: a critical review
  • Predicting ammonia emissions from carbon and nitrogen biodegradability during animal waste composting
  • Investigations into ammonia emissions during composting
  • Emissions of ammonia from a plant for pig slurry processing on sawdust
  • Farm-scale evaluation of three cover systems for reducing ammonia emissions from swine manure stores and subsequent land spreading
Air purification
  • Combined air scrubbers in livestock production: performances and costs
  • Trickle bed reactors: optimisation of the washing water processing to increase the ammonia removal efficiency
  • Ammonia and odour removal from waste gases of composting processes
  • Biofiltration with rockwool for removal of ammonia emitted from livestock farming
  • Production of aerosols of diameter under 10 ?m from stables and its elimination
Integrated measures
  • Assessment of pollution swapping risks of EU environmental policies and measures
  • Prioritisation of ammonia abatement measures, their costs and impacts on nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide emissions using the NARSES model
  • Quantification of ammonia emission and nitrate leaching in EU-27 using MITERRAEUROPE
  • Integrated assessment of atmospheric emissions, leaching and runoff of ammonia, greenhouse gases and nutrients at a landscape level
  • Integral assessment of acidification of the animal sector as part of the total agricultural sector in the Netherlands
  • Regional estimates of ammonia and nitrous oxide and their potential environmental impact: The case of dairy production in Czech Republic
  • A whole-farm strategy to reduce ammonia losses following slurry application
  • The impact on ammonia emissions of strategies to reduce nitrate leaching losses following cattle slurry applications to grassland
  • Agricultural scenarios for European air pollution policy
  • Compliance with multiple EU directives when regulating farm intensification
Inventories and modelling - process models
  • Online monitoring and modelling of ammonia emission from pig units
  • Investigating ammonia reduction techniques using a dynamic model for swine barns
  • Ammonia emission from sources in animal houses
  • How the use of a mechanistic model of ammonia volatilisation in the field may improve national ammonia volatilisation inventories
  • NH3 emission from manure: physicists? view
Inventories and modelling - national inventories
  • Spanish methodology for the improvement of ammonia emissions inventories from livestock
  • Animal husbandry in Germany: national evaluation for animal housing systems - assessment of environmental impacts
  • Agriculture emission inventory in Italy: synergies among conventions and directives
  • Assessment of manure management systems in Austria and improvement of the emission inventory
  • The ?Swiss Ammonia GAP?? Comparison of emissions and air quality trends
  • An ammonia emission inventory model for Irish agriculture
  • The model for agricultural mineral flows for policy support
  • Calculation of the ammonia emissions in The Netherlands
  • Comparison of models used for national ammonia emission inventories within the EAGER workgroup
  • Nitrogen in The Netherlands over the past five centuries
Inventories and modelling - emission factors
  • PM emissions in and from force-ventilated turkey and dairy cattle houses as factor of health and the environment
  • Ammonia emissions in and from force-ventilated turkey and dairy cattle houses, validation of emission factors by direct measurements
  • Aerial pollutants emissions from confined animal buildings
  • Multi-purpose ammonia measurements on a landscape level
  • Ammonia, trimethylamine, and other volatile organic compound emissions from selected animal buildings
  • Cost of ammonia abatement techniques in Spain
  • Ammonia-based air permits for Idaho dairies
  • EU Project ?BAT SUPPORT?: ?Best Available Techniques for European Intensive Livestock Farming - Support for the Implementation of the IPPC-Directive?
Measurement methods - sensors and technology
  • Measuring atmospheric ammonia concentrations using differential optical absorption spectroscopy
  • Semiconductor sensor in continual measuring of different ammonia concentration
  • SnO2 solid state gas sensors and changes of some their properties for measurement of NH3 concentration
  • Ammonia passive samplers: a helpful tool for monitoring measures to abate emissions
Measurement methods - mechanically ventilated buildings and surface areas
  • Continuous monitoring method for ammonia emissions from poultry broiler houses in the United States
  • Multi-element combined methods increase the reliability of emission factor measurement
  • Quantifying measurement uncertainty for the multi-state broiler ammonia emissions project
  • Ammonia emissions in naturally ventilated cattle housing with an exercise yard: requirements and measuring concept using two tracer gases
  • Methodologies for measuring ammonia emissions from grazing livestock
Measurement methods - naturally ventilated buildings
  • An overview on ventilation rate measuring and modelling techniques through naturally ventilated buildings
  • Study of the distribution pattern of the ammonia concentration inside a naturally ventilated dairy house
  • Methods to measure the ventilation rate from naturally ventilated livestock buildings
  • Determination of ammonia emission from naturally ventilated animal houses
  • Measuring methods of determination of air exchange rates and ammonia emission mass flows in naturally ventilated livestock buildings
Dispersion
  • Ammonia concentrations downwind of Idaho dairies and heifer facilities
  • Ammonia concentrations around three pig farms in the central plateau of spain
  • Ammonia concentration around two poultry farms in the central plateau of spain.
  • Ammonia: air pollution and dispersion of agricultural and urban sources
  • Dispersion of ammonia emissions in the surroundings of a big piggery
Open space workshops
  • Workshop animal feeding
  • Workshop ammonia abatement: heaven and hell
  • Workshop measuring and monitoring
  • Workshop inventories and modelling: the true story ?
  • Workshop integrated measures: do we need them?
Panel discussions
  • Panel discussion (Monday)
  • An abridged summary of panellist statements (Wednesday)
Conference statement
  • Conference statement
  • Authors index